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The Journey of Species Survival is Durrell's main tool for planning and tracking how we deliver our mission of saving species from extinction. We monitor each species through 13 management stages and four main phases as our actions drive its population recovery from the brink of extinction back to safer levels.

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Phase I: Assessment & Planning

Phase I: Assessment & Planning

The first phase of the survival journey focuses on gathering the information required to plan our approach to effectively manage the recovery of the species.

Rapid assessment

Rapid assessment

1970

The Black Lion Tamarin is rediscovered in Morro Diabo by Adelmer and Coimbra Filho.

About the Rapid assessment stage
Field missions are used to assess species conservation status, key threats and initial actions needed to kick start the programme.

Rapid response

Rapid response

1990

The first population viability analysis (PVA) workshop is held. During this workshop, reintroductions of captive animals into the wild and other population and habitat management actions are considered. As a result of this, Jersey Zoo begins the first international captive breeding programme for black lion tamarins outside of Brazil; the only institution selected outside of Brazil to breed the species in captivity. Three breeding tamarin pairs arrive from Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre in Brazil and to manage them, an international studbook was created which is still managed by Durrell staff today.

About the Rapid response stage
If extinction risk is very high, captive breeding programmes or rapid field interventions might be used to avert an immediate risk of extinction.

Stakeholder engagement

Stakeholder engagement

1992

1986 – The Brazilian government create an International Committee for the Conservation and Management of the Black Lion Tamarin, bringing together conservation professionals and members of the Brazilian government and Durrell’s Jeremy Mallinson is invited. The committee plan to promote lion tamarins as a flagship species, with the ultimate goal of preserving the unique Atlantic Forest ecosystem and its many endemic plants and animals. Durrell still has a place on this committee today.

1992 – Claudio Valladares-Padua, a 1982 Durrell DESMAN graduate establishes the Brazilian NGO IPÊ, the Institute for Ecological Research. This marks the beginning of a long and successful relationship between Durrell and IPÊ which is still ongoing today. IPÊ is now one of Brazil’s largest environmental NGOs and has spear-headed efforts to conserve this tamarin in the wild. In 2015, IPÊ was awarded the National Award for Biodiversity by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment for its work on the species. IPÊ staff are trained annually through the Durrell Endangered Species Management (DESMAN) post-graduate certificate held at Durrell’s Academy in Jersey.

About the Stakeholder engagement stage
Conservation actions are successfully increasing the species’ numbers and the programme structure is now capable of monitoring and adapting to new or re-emerging threats to the species.

Full assessment

Full assessment

1994

Durrell DESMAN graduate, Claudio Valladares-Padua completes the first long term study of the black lion tamarin, the results of which become essential in planning conservation actions.  The study aimed to determine the minimum viable metapopulation (a group of sub-populations that are linked) for the black lion tamarin and highlight the potential dangers for sub-populations. Although the overall population was found to be higher than previously thought, numbering 1004 individuals, these individuals occurred across many sub-populations meaning that the genetic flow between groups was low. The study concluded that without actions such as reintroductions and assisted dispersal through the provision of habitat corridors, the tamarin sub- populations would have a low chance of survival.

About the Full assessment stage
Intensive research into ecological, environmental and socio-ecological factors affecting the species provides a baseline to inform the planning stage.

Planning & partnership

Planning & partnership

1997

1997 – The second Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) Workshop brings together government and NGO representatives to discuss the long term conservation plan for the black lion tamarin. The Metapopulation Management Plan for the species is officially released and presents recommendations to maintain high levels of genetic diversity within the wild and captive populations. As part of this management programme, reintroductions are planned and Durrell’s captive black lion tamarins are trained for their release into the Brazilian rainforest.  In Jersey Zoo’s woodland area, free-ranging tamarin family groups have a heated hut that they use as a base for shelter and feeding but spend a great deal of time out and about foraging for invertebrates in their free-ranging woodland area.

 

About the Planning and partnership stage
Conservation targets and detailed action plans are developed to guide the programme's efforts. Partnerships and governance are also outlined to ensure the programme remains on track.

Phase II: Intensive Care

Phase II: Intensive Care

This phase involves the testing and implementation of intensive management actions to tackle the main threats to a species in order to stabilise its population and promote recovery. It often requires the most resources as it lays the foundation for a species’ long-term recovery.

Trialling actions

Trialling actions

1999

1995 – Experimental management actions are tested through the first translocation of a wild black lion tamarin group from Rio Claro Farm in central Sao Paulo to a 2000 hectare fragment of habitat in Mosquito Farm, west Sao Paulo, an area where the species used to be found.

1999 – Black lion tamarins bred at Durrell are transported to Brazil for release to the wild as the first reintroduction for the species. The first mixed group of wild and captive-bred black lion tamarins were introduced into the Morro do Diabo State Park. A male black lion tamarin bred at Durrell and two wild females were mixed as a group before being released. The group was fitted with radio-collars and monitored after release by IPÊ and Durrell staff.

2002 – The Black Lion Tamarin Ecological Station was established, covering 4 major forest fragments in the Pontal do Paranapanema (a total of 6600 hectares), two of them containing black lion tamarins. The landscape-scale project ‘Atlantic Forest Corridors’ also starts to restore forest in the region in order to reconnect the isolated fragments of remaining forest with planted corridors. This project was coordinated by DESMAN Graduate, now IPÊ staff member, Laury Cullen Jr.

About the Trialling actions stage
Conservation actions are tested on the ground, results are monitored and techniques are adapted to develop effective management actions.

Scaling up actions

Scaling up actions

2002

 

2005 – The third Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) Workshop summarises the current status of the species and makes recommendations for future management of the ‘metapopulation’. The species persists in 11 known sub-populations but the Morro de Diabo sub-population is the only one considered large enough to be viable and self-sustaining. Recommendations are made that all sub-populations should number between 500-750 individuals to maintain genetic diversity and to minimise the risk of extinction. A new large patch of forest is identified as potential habitat, with unconfirmed reports of tamarins inhabiting this area. It is thought that establishing a population here through translocations or reintroductions could create a ‘back up’ to the large Morro do Diabo population and it is also recommended that habitat corridors are created to link isolated sub-populations by aiding dispersal of individuals between sites.

2012 – IPÊ reforest a large corridor of Atlantic Forest, connecting the Morro do Diabo State Park to the BLT Ecological Station. This hugely successful landscape scale reforestation project led by IPÊ was supported by Durrell and the “Cans for Corridors” campaign since 2004. With 1.4 million trees planted, the corridor spans more than 700 hectares and is the largest corridor to be reforested to date.

About the Scaling up actions stage
Once effective management actions are developed they can be rolled out across the intervention zone.

Intensive management

Intensive management

2012

2010 – The Brazilian government promotes a workshop bringing together several partners for the elaboration of the National Action Plan (NAP) for the Conservation of Central Atlantic Forest Mammals, which includes the black lion tamarin and 26 other endangered mammals. One of the actions from this NAP is the restructuring of the captive programme for the black lion tamarins. Durrell staff member and the BLT studbook keeper Dominic Wormell is invited to collaborate. The NAP also establishes Advisory Groups in replacement of the International Committees.

2014 – Durrell staff visited Brazil to deliver the Callitrichid Conservation Husbandry Workshop – a five-day workshop where shared learning and exchange of experiences aimed to enhance in-country capacity for the successful management and conservation breeding of threatened callitrichids (marmosets and tamarins). A local species advisory group comprising of people from all over Brazil was formed during the workshop. This network aims to improve communication and provide a support network for the institutions working on the conservation of these species.

2016 – Durrell supports and plans in-situ field research with IPÊ. GPS satellite collars are fitted to some individual tamarins, the first time this technology has been used on tamarins in the wild. Two female tamarins are due to be exported from Rio primate centre, Brazil to Jersey to improve the captive situation in europe.

About the Intensive management stage
After actions have been scaled up they are then intensively implemented to bring primary threats under control, enabling the start of the species' recovery.

Adaptive management

About the Adaptive management stage
Conservation actions are successfully increasing the species’ numbers and the programme structure is now capable of monitoring and adapting to new or re-emerging threats to the species.

Phase III: Long-term Management

Phase III: Long-term Management

Once a species reaches this phase the population recovery is well underway but the sustainability and long-term robustness of the programme needs to be ensured.

Minimum management

About the Minimum management stage
Moving towards sustainability, the intensive actions are scaled back to minimum levels of effort required to meet conservation targets.

Capacity-building

About the Capacity-building stage
The capacity building activities within the programme enter the final stage and local partner(s) lead the strategic and operational management of programme.

Final evaluation

About the Final evaluation stage
A detailed programme evaluation reviews progress towards conservation targets, final responsibilities are passed onto local partners and a new long-term action plan is agreed.

Phase IV: Watching Brief

Phase IV: Watching Brief

This phase signals the exit point for Durrell as a species reaches the end of its survival journey.

Watching brief

About the Watching brief stage
Durrell steps back from the programme and provides technical support to local partners on request.

Population numbers

1970


Rapid assessment


Phase I: Assessment & Planning

1990


Rapid response


Phase I: Assessment & Planning

1992


Stakeholder engagement


Phase I: Assessment & Planning

1994


Full assessment


Phase I: Assessment & Planning

1997


Planning & partnership


Phase I: Assessment & Planning

1999


Trialling actions


Phase II: Intensive Care

2002


Scaling up actions


Phase II: Intensive Care

2012


Intensive management


Phase II: Intensive Care


Adaptive management


Phase II: Intensive Care


Minimum management


Phase III: Long-term Management


Capacity-building


Phase III: Long-term Management


Final evaluation


Phase III: Long-term Management


Watching brief


Phase IV: Watching Brief

Phase I


Assessment
& Planning


Stages 1 - 5

Phase II


Intensive
Care


Stages 6 - 9

Phase III


Long-term Management


Stages 10 - 12

Phase IV


Watching
Brief


Stage 13